Wielka synagoga w Katowicach

Rekonstrukcja Synagogi jako 3D model wg. zachowanych pocztówek i zdjęć do 1939 roku


Przed wojną była w Katowicach Wielka Synagoga. Wybudowano ją w 1900 r. przy ul. Mickiewicza. Rok później odbył się w niej Światowy Kongres Syjonistyczny. Niestety w 1939 r. świątynia została zniszczona przez hitlerowców. Dziś to działka prywatna, na której znajduje się targowisko. Jest brzydko, tandetnie, byle jak. Dawniej ten fragment centrum Katowic prezentował się pięknie, co widać na starych pocztówkach. Wielka Synagoga istniała krótko, bo między 1900 a 1939 r., ale była jedną z najładniejszych i najbardziej okazałych budowli w Katowicach. Jej budowa rozpoczęła się 1896 roku. Projekt budynku w stylu neogotyku, neorenesansu i stylu mauretańskiego to dzieło Hugo i Maxa Grunfeldów. Synagogę otwarto w 1900 roku. Wielka była dosłownie: wysoka na 80 metrów, mogła pomieścić ponad 1000 osób, 670 mężczyzn i 514 kobiet.

Na jej tyłach powstał budynek administracji gminy żydowskiej (obecnie przychodnia zdrowia), rytualna rzeźnia drobiu oraz piekarnia macy.

Synagoga została doszczętnie zniszczona przez hitlerowców 4 września 1939 roku. Po wojnie nigdy nie zrealizowano planów jej odbudowy. Dziś w jej miejscu, na placu Synagogi, o świątyni przypomina jedynie pamiątkowa tablica. Wokół niej rozstawione są stragany, bo od lat na placu działa targowisko. Jest szpetne i nijak nie przystaje do centrum miasta, jednak znajduje się na prywatnej działce i urzędnikom z Katowic nigdy targowiska nie udało się z tego miejsca usunąć. https://dziennikzachodni.pl/ostatni-weekend-na-beskidzkich-stokach-zdjecia-z-kamerek-i-warunki-narciarskie/ar/11920162

 https://dziennikzachodni.pl/katowice-z-wielka-synagoga-wspanialy-kawalek-miasta-co-sie-stalo-zdjecia/ar/11920180

79 Years Ago  – The Burning of the Katowice, Poland Great Synagogue

 

The new synagogue in Katowice, also called ”The Great” one, was built in 1900 on Mickiewicza street. The splendid building, which could seat about 1000 worshippers, was the most beautiful building in the city.

The synagogue was designed by Ignatz Grünfeld, an architect from Katowice. His building company built both the first and the second synagogue in Katowice. The Great Synagogue was erected on a parcel on Uferstrasse, later August-Schneider-Strasse (the contemporary Mickiewicza street). During the design process, Grünfeld got his inspiration from German reform synagogues (among other things, The Great Synagogoue in Berlin and the Bohum synagogue).

The synagogue in Katowice was erected in connected architectural styles:Neo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissance and Moorish. The most characteristic element of the synagogue was a great sumptuously decorated dome with a rib vault, placed directly above the main prayer room. There was a lamp on the top if it. There were huge windows on the side walls, built in the Late Gothic style. They were decorated a lacy tracery and a pediment ending with spires. Inside the main prayer room were seats for 670 men and 514 women.

An administration building of Jewish community (nowadays, there is a clinic), a new mikveh (nowadays, there is a residence of the insurance company), a ritual poultry butchery and a matzah bakery were built at the back of the synagogue. Nearby, a school building was built at the same time as the synagogue. It works up to this day as High School of Adam Mickiewicz.

To avoid any disturbance from the street noise during the service, a pavement on the road adjacent to the building was acousticly insulated with cork. In 1937-38, near the synagogue, a five-storied building was erected, where a prayer room and a residence of community institutions were placed.

The synagogue was destroyed by Germans on September 4, 1939. During occupation, Gestapo residence was located in the part of buildings that were not destroyed. After war, there was a project to rebuild the synagogue. However, these plans were not realized. Finally, the salvaged buildings of Jewish community administration were changed into a clinic.

Nowadays, in a place where in the past was The Great Synagogue, between Mickiewicz and Skarga streets, there is an obelisk ”to commemorate the memory of Jews living in Katowice – murdered by German inveders in 1939-45.” It was exhibited on the citizens’ committe initiative. The committe was set in 1988. Near to its residence there is a fair.

A project of rebuilding the synagogoue on its original location was born on the Or-Chaim (The Light of Life) foundation initiative with the cooperation with Evangelical, Catholic and Jewish environments. It would become a symbol of the lasting memory, and also a symbol of Polish-Jewish reconciliation.

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